Soles of the Feet

Soles of the Feet: An evidence-based mindfulness program for disruptive behavior

The Mind Body Lab provides and evaluates several different contemplative practices for students in elementary, middle, and high schoool grade levels. Service provision is conceptualized in a three-tiered model of support, whereby the type of intervention is matched to specific needs of the students (Felver et al., 2013). One mindfulness-based program that we are actively studying is Soles of the Feet.

infographic outlining the Soles of the Feet program

Soles of the Feet for Students (SOF) is designed to teach students a simple self-regulatory strategy to reduce aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classroom. At the classroom level, SOF can be used to teach a group of students a basic self-regulatory strategy to calm their bodies and support transitions between activities. SOF has been shown to increase academic engagement and reduce disruptive behavior. SOF is typically completed over the course of 5 sessions of thirty-minutes.

The Mind Body Laboratory is actively researching Soles of the Feet in several different settings and among different age groups ranging from elementary school to undergraduate classrooms.

Soles of the Feet materials, training, and research

The full Soles of the Feet for Students curriculum, including a thorough description of all the procedures, is  commercially available for purchase from New Harbinger Publications in “Mindfulness in the classroom: An evidence-based program to reduce disruptive behavior and increase academic engagement.” It can be easily found on Amazon and Barnes and Noble.

If you are interested in arranging individual or group training on Soles of the Feet, please contact Dr. Felver directly at

If you are interested in conducting research using the Soles of the Feet manual, please contact Dr. Felver directly at

List of Soles of the Feet publications

New research and publications on Soles of the Feet will be posted here, check back soon for updates.


  • Singh, N.N., Wahler, R.G., Adkins, A.D., Myers, R.E., & the Mindfulness Research Group.  (2003). Soles of the feet: A mindfulness-based self-control intervention for aggression by an individual with mild mental retardation and mental illness.  Research in Developmental Disabilities, 24, 158-169.


  • Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Adkins, A. D., Wahler, R. G., Sabaawi, M., & Singh, J. (2007). Individuals with mental illness can control their aggressive behavior through mindfulness training.  Behavior Modification, 31, 313-328.
  • Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Adkins, A. D., Singh, J., & Singh, A. N (2007). Mindfulness training assists individuals with moderate mental retardation to maintain their community placements.  Behavior Modification, 31, 800-814.
  • Singh, N.N., Lancioni, G.E., Joy, S.D.S., Winton, A.S.W., Sabaawi, M., Wahler, R.G., & Singh, J. (2007).  Adolescents with conduct disorder can be mindful of their aggressive behavior.  Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders15, 56-63.


  • Singh, N.N., Lancioni, G.E., Winton, A.S.W., Singh, A.N., Adkins, A.D., & Singh, J. (2008).  Clinical and benefit-cost outcomes of teaching a mindfulness-based procedure to adult offenders with intellectual disabilities.  Behavior Modification, 32, 622-637.


  • Adkins, A. D., Singh, A. N., Winton, A. S. W., McKeegan, G. F., & Singh, J. (2010).  Using a mindfulness-based procedure in the community: Translating research to practice.  Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 175-183.


  • Singh, N.N., Lancioni, G.E., Singh, A.D.A., Winton, A.S.W., Singh, A.N.A., & Singh, J. (2011). Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome can use a mindfulness-based strategy to control their aggressive behavior.  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1103-1109.
  • Singh, N.N., Lancioni, G.E., Manikam, R. Winton, A.S.W., Singh, A.N.A., Singh, J. & Singh, A.D.A. (2011). A mindfulness-based strategy for self-management of aggressive behavior in adolescents with autism.  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 1153-1158.
  • Singh, N.N., Lancioni, G.E., Winton, A.S.W., Singh, J., Singh, A.N.A., & Singh, A.D.A. (2011).  Peer with intellectual disabilities as a mindfulness-based anger and aggression management therapist. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32, 2690-2696.


  • Singh, N.N., Lancioni, G.E., Karazsia, B.T., Winton, A.S.W., Myers, R.E., Singh, A.N.A., Singh, A.D.A., & Singh, J. (2013). Mindfulness-based treatment of aggression in individuals with intellectual disabilities: A waiting list control study. Mindfulness, 4, 158-167.


  • Felver, J. C., Frank, J. L., & McEachern, A. D. (2014). Effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of the soles of the feet mindfulness-based intervention with elementary school students. Mindfulness, 5, 589-597.
  • Shababi-Shad, S. (2014). Use of a mindfulness practice to decrease problem behavior and increase engaged time of three students in an elementary school setting. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia. Retrieved from


  • Wilson, A. N., Kasson, E. M., Gratz, O., & Guercio, J. M. (2015). Exploring the clinical utility of a stimulus avoidance assessment to enhance a relaxation training model. Behavior Analysis and Practice, 8, 57-61.


  • Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Myers, R. M., Karazsia, B. T., Courtney, T. M., & Nugent, K. (2017). A mindfulness-based intervention for self-management of verbal and physical aggression by adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome. Developmental Neurorehabilitation20(5), 253-260.
  • Singh, N. N., Chan, J., Karazsia, B. T., McPherson, C. L., & Jackman, M. M. (2017). Telehealth training of teachers to teach a mindfulness-based procedure for self-management of aggressive behavior to students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities63(4), 195-203.
  • Felver, J. C., Felver, S. L., Margolis, K. L., Ravitch, N. K., Romer, N., & Horner, R. H. (2017). Effectiveness and social validity of the Soles of the Feet mindfulness-based intervention with special education students. Contemporary School Psychology.


  • Felver, J. C. & Singh, N. N. (September 2020). Mindfulness in the classroom: An evidence-based program to reduce disruptive behavior and increase academic engagement. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.